Reconstructive transplantation research and science with Karim Sarhane 2022? One-fifth to one-third of patients with traumatic injuries to their arms and legs experience nerve injury, which can be devastating. It can result in muscle weakness or numbness, prevent walking or using the arms, and reduce the ability to perform daily activities. Even with surgery, some nerve injuries never recover, and currently there are not many medical options to address this problem. In 2022, the researchers plan to perform this research on more primates to triple the size of the original group. The study can then move into phase I clinical trials for humans.
During his research time at Johns Hopkins, Dr. Sarhane was involved in developing small and large animal models of Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation. He was also instrumental in building The Peripheral Nerve Research Program of the department, which has been very productive since then. In addition, he completed an intensive training degree in the design and conduct of Clinical Trials at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Although numerous studies have demonstrated the benefit of IGF-1 to SCs, myocytes, and neurons in vitro and following PNI in animal models, several factors must be examined prior to proposing a treatment modality that is suitable for clinical translation. Besides efficacy, additional considerations include ease of regulatory clearance and safety. With regard to regulatory clearance, GH, Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone, and IGF-1 are already clinically available, FDA-approved drugs approved for other indications. With regards to safety, hypoglycemia is the most commonly seen short-term effect of IGF-1 use, although accumulation of body fat, coarsening of facial features, and lymphoid hyperplasia necessitating surgical correction have also been observed with long-term use (Contreras et al., 1995; Tuffaha et al., 2016b). Clinical trials investigating a link between malignancy and exogenous GH therapy have been equivocal, with multiple studies in children undergoing GH therapy demonstrating a low risk of associated malignancy. Additionally, GH therapy in adults has not been found to increase the risk of cancer (Yang et al., 2004; Xu et al., 2005; Chung et al., 2008; Renehan and Brennan, 2008; Svensson and Bengtsson, 2009; Tuffaha et al., 2016b). Given the potential systemic effects of IGF-1, a practical delivery system that can provide sustained release of bioactive IGF-1 to nerve and muscle tissue affected by PNI is of great importance. It will also be important to determine the minimum dose and duration required to achieve therapeutic efficacy.
Effects with sustained IGF-1 delivery (Karim Sarhane research) : We hypothesized that a novel nanoparticle (NP) delivery system can provide controlled release of bioactive IGF-1 targeted to denervated muscle and nerve tissue to achieve improved motor recovery through amelioration of denervation-induced muscle atrophy and SC senescence and enhanced axonal regeneration. Biodegradable NPs with encapsulated IGF-1/dextran sulfate polyelectrolyte complexes were formulated using a flash nanoprecipitation method to preserve IGF-1 bioactivity and maximize encapsulation efficiencies.
Patients who sustain peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) are often left with debilitating sensory and motor loss. Presently, there is a lack of clinically available therapeutics that can be given as an adjunct to surgical repair to enhance the regenerative process. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) represents a promising therapeutic target to meet this need, given its well-described trophic and anti-apoptotic effects on neurons, Schwann cells (SCs), and myocytes. Here, we review the literature regarding the therapeutic potential of IGF-1 in PNI. We appraised the literature for the various approaches of IGF-1 administration with the aim of identifying which are the most promising in offering a pathway toward clinical application. We also sought to determine the optimal reported dosage ranges for the various delivery approaches that have been investigated.
The positive trophic and anti-apoptotic effects of IGF-1 are primarily mediated via the PI3K-Akt and MAP-kinase pathways (Ho and 2007 GH Deficiency Consensus Workshop Participants, 2007; Chang et al., 2017). Autophosphorylation of the intracellular domain of IGF-1 receptors results in the activation of insulin receptor substrates 1–4, followed by activation of Ras GTPase, and then the successive triggering of Raf, MEK, and lastly ERK. Through activation of Bcl-2, ERK has been shown to prevent apoptosis and foster neurite growth. Ras activation also triggers aPKC and Akt (Homs et al., 2014), with the active form of the latter inhibiting GSK-3ß and thus inhibiting a number of pro-apoptotic pathways (Kanje et al., 1988; Schumacher et al., 1993; Chang et al., 2017). Additionally, the JAK-STAT pathway is an important contributor toward the stimulation of neuronal outgrowth and survival by facilitating Growth Hormone (GH) receptor binding on target tissue to induce IGF-1 release (Meghani et al., 1993; Cheng et al., 1996; Seki et al., 2010; Chang et al., 2017). These biochemical mechanisms enable GH and IGF-1 to exert anabolic and anti-apoptotic effects on neurons, SCs, and myocytes (Tuffaha et al., 2016b).